Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
A new constraint on the Hawking evaporation of primordial black holes in the radiation-dominated era
Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran, Iran
2 PDAT Laboratory, Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran, Iran
3 School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran, Iran
Accepted: 6 March 2023
Published online: 11 April 2023
In this paper, we revisit the evaporation and accretion of primordial black holes (PBHs) during cosmic history and compare them to see if both of these processes are constantly active for PBHs or not. Our calculations indicate that during the radiation-dominated era, PBHs absorb ambient radiation due to accretion, and their apparent horizon grows rapidly. This growth causes the Hawking radiation process to practically fail and all the particles that escape as radiation from PBHs to fall back into them. Nevertheless, our emphasis is that the accretion efficiency factor also plays a very important role here and its exact determination is essential. We have shown that the lower mass limit for PBHs that have not yet evaporated should approximately be rather than . Finally, we study the effects of Hawking radiation quiescence in cosmology and reject models based on the evaporation of PBHs in the radiation-dominated era.
© The Author(s) 2023
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