Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
Analytic solutions of scalar field cosmology, mathematical structures for early inflation and late time accelerated expansion
Department of Physics, Bogazici University, Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey
Accepted: 29 January 2023
Published online: 21 February 2023
We study the most general cosmological model with real scalar field which is minimally coupled to gravity. Our calculations are based on Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) background metric. Field equations consist of three differential equations. We switch independent variable from time to scale factor by change of variable . Thus a new set of differential equations are analytically solvable with known methods. We formulate Hubble function, the scalar field, potential and energy density when one of them is given in the most general form. a(t) can be explicitly found as long as methods of integration techniques are available. We investigate the dynamics of the universe at early times as well as at late times in light of these formulas. We find mathematical machinery which turns on and turns off early accelerated expansion. On the other hand late time accelerated expansion is explained by cosmic domain walls. We have compared our results with recent observations of type Ia supernovae by considering the Hubble tension and absolute magnitude tension. Eighty-nine percent of present universe may consist of domain walls while rest is matter.
© The Author(s) 2023
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