Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
A novel string-derived with stable proton, light neutrinos and R-parity violation
Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Lecce, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Lecce Via Arnesano, 73100, Lecce, Italy
2 Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZL, UK
* e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 4 December 2007
The standard model indicates the realization of grand unified structures in nature, and it can only be viewed as an effective theory below a higher energy cutoff. While the renormalizable standard model forbids proton decay mediating operators due to accidental global symmetries, many extensions of the standard model introduce such dimension 4, 5 and 6 operators. Furthermore, quantum gravity effects are expected to induce proton instability, indicating that the higher energy cutoff scale must be above 1016 GeV. Quasi-realistic heterotic string models provide the arena to explore how perturbative quantum gravity affects the particle physics phenomenology. An appealing explanation for the proton longevity is provided by the existence of an Abelian gauge symmetry that suppresses the proton decay mediating operators. Additionally, such a low scale U(1) symmetry should feature the following: it should allow for the suppression of the left-handed neutrino masses by a seesaw mechanism; allow for fermion Yukawa couplings to the electroweak Higgs doublets; be anomaly free; and finally be family universal. These requirements render the existence of such U(1) symmetries in quasi-realistic heterotic string models highly non-trivial. We demonstrate the existence of a U(1) symmetry that satisfies all of the above requirements in a class of left–right symmetric heterotic string models in the free fermionic formulation. The existence of the extra in the energy range accessible to future experiments is motivated by the requirement of adequate suppression of proton decay mediation. We further show that, while the extra U(1) forbids dimension 4 baryon number violating operators, it allows dimension 4 lepton number violating operators and R-parity violation.
© Springer-Verlag , 2008