Gauge invariance, infrared/collinear singularitiesand tree level matrix element for
Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Cracow, Poland
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One of the necessary steps in constructing a high-precision option of KKMC, a Monte Carlo program for the high-precision simulation of fermion pair production at LEP and Linear Collider energies, was to make a careful study of the appropriate matrix elements calculated from QED and the complete standard model. In particular, the installation of the double bremsstrahlung matrix element for the process into the scheme of coherent exclusive exponentiation (CEEX) was necessary. In the CEEX scheme one has to define an extrapolation and/or reduction procedure to enable the use of the matrix elements for kinematical configurations with a large number of outgoing particles. The process under study is particularly interesting because of the gauge cancellation of contributions for photon emission from incoming fermion lines and t-channel W. The QED U(1) gauge properties require terms of the triple and quartic gauge couplings to be taken into consideration as well. A natural separation of the complete amplitude into gauge invariant parts was found and is among the main results of the paper. Each part has a well defined physical interpretation, which after partial integration over phase space provides infrared singular, leading-log, next-to-leading-log, and other terms. Contributions related to the triple and quartic gauge coupling of W (extracted with the help of an expansion around the contact W-interaction) have been ordered as well. The separation can be of broader interest; it originates from the rigorous calculation of matrix elements; it visualizes, in the language of spin amplitudes, the properties of factorization necessary for the common multi-process picture. For example, the multiple photon algorithm of PHOTOS, based on the parton shower-like approach, profits from similar considerations. These somewhat speculative aspects of the calculation will be mentioned in the paper as well.
© Springer-Verlag, 2005