2018 Impact factor 4.843
Particles and Fields
Eur. Phys. J. C 2, 661-670
DOI 10.1007/s100529800866

Hadronic expansion dynamics in central Pb+Pb collisions
at 158 GeV per nucleon

NA49 Collaboration
H. Appelshäuser7 - J. Bächler5 - S.J. Bailey16 - L.S. Barnby3 - J. Bartke6 - R.A. Barton3 - H. Bia\l 
kowska14 - A. Billmeier10 - C.O. Blyth3 - R. Bock7 - C. Bormann10 - F.P. Brady8 - R. Brockmann7 - R.Brun5 - P. Buncic5,10 - H.L. Caines3 - D. Cebra8 - G.E. Cooper2 - J.G. Cramer16 - P. Csato4 - J. Dunn8 - V. Eckardt13 - F. Eckhardt12 - M.I. Ferguson5 - D.Ferenc5 - H.G. Fischer5 - D. Flierl10 - Z. Fodor4 - P. Foka10 - P. Freund13 - V. Friese12 - M. Fuchs10 - F. Gabler10 - J. Gal4 - M. Gazdzicki10 - E. Gladysz6 - J. Grebieszkow15 - J. Günther10 - J.W. Harris17 - S. Hegyi4 - T. Henkel12 - L.A. Hill3 - I. Huang2,8 - H. Hümmler10 - G. Igo11 - D. Irmscher2,7 - P. Jacobs2 - P.G. Jones3 - K. Kadija18,13 - V.I. Kolesnikov9 - M. Kowalski6 - B. Lasiuk11,17 - P. Lévai4 A.I. Malakhov9 - S. Margetis2 - C. Markert7 - G.L. Melkumov9 - A. Mock13 - J. Molnár4 - J.M. Nelson3 - M. Oldenburg10 - G. Odyniec2 - G. Palla4 - A.D. Panagiotou1 - A. Petridis1 - A. Piper12 - R.J. Porter2 - A.M. Poskanzer2 - S. Poziombka10 - D.J. Prindle16 - F. Pühlhofer12 - W. Rauch13 - J.G. Reid16 - R. Renfordt10 - W. Retyk15 - H.G. Ritter2 - D. Röhrich10 - C. Roland7 - G. Roland10 - H. Rudolph2,10 - A. Rybicki6 - A. Sandoval7 - H. Sann7 - A.Yu. Semenov9 - E. Schäfer13 - D. Schmischke10 - N. Schmitz13 - S. Schönfelder13 - P. Seyboth13 - J. Seyerlein13 - F. Sikler4 - E. Skrzypczak15 - G.T.A. Squier3 - R. Stock10 - H. Ströbele10 - C. Struck12 - I. Szentpetery4 - J. Sziklai4 - M. Toy2,11 - T.A. Trainor16 - S. Trentalange11 - T. Ullrich17 - M. Vassiliou1 - G. Vesztergombi4 - D. Vranic5,18 - F. Wang2 - D.D. Weerasundara16 - S. Wenig5 - C. Whitten11 - T. Wienold2 - L. Wood8 - T.A. Yates3 - N. Xu2 - J. Zimanyi4 - X.-Z. Zhu16 - R. Zybert3

1 Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, USA
3 Birmingham University, Birmingham, England
4 KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, Hungary
5 CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
6 Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland
7 Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany
8 University of California at Davis, Davis, USA
9 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia
10 Fachbereich Physik der Universität, Frankfurt, Germany
11 University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA
12 Fachbereich Physik der Universität, Marburg, Germany
13 Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Munich, Germany
14 Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland
15 Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
16 Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
17 Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
18 Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

Received: 25 November 1997 / Published online: 24 March 1998

Abstract
Two-particle correlation functions of negative hadrons over wide phase space, and transverse mass spectra of negative hadrons and deuterons near mid-rapidity have been measured in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon by the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS. A novel Coulomb correction procedure for the negative two-particle correlations is employed making use of the measured oppositely charged particle correlation. Within an expanding source scenario these results are used to extract the dynamic characteristics of the hadronic source, resolving the ambiguities between the temperature and transverse expansion velocity of the source, that are unavoidable when single and two particle spectra are analysed separately. The source shape, the total duration of the source expansion, the duration of particle emission, the freeze-out temperature and the longitudinal and transverse expansion velocities are deduced.


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