Regular Article – Theoretical Physics
Gravitational redshift/blueshift of light emitted by geodesic test particles, frame-dragging and pericentre-shift effects, in the Kerr–Newman–de Sitter and Kerr–Newman black hole geometries
Section of Theoretical Physics, Physics Department, University of Ioannina, 451 10, Ioannina, Greece
Accepted: 22 January 2021
Published online: 11 February 2021
We investigate the redshift and blueshift of light emitted by timelike geodesic particles in orbits around a Kerr–Newman–(anti) de Sitter (KN(a)dS) black hole. Specifically we compute the redshift and blueshift of photons that are emitted by geodesic massive particles and travel along null geodesics towards a distant observer-located at a finite distance from the KN(a)dS black hole. For this purpose we use the killing-vector formalism and the associated first integrals-constants of motion. We consider in detail stable timelike equatorial circular orbits of stars and express their corresponding redshift/blueshift in terms of the metric physical black hole parameters (angular momentum per unit mass, mass, electric charge and the cosmological constant) and the orbital radii of both the emitter star and the distant observer. These radii are linked through the constants of motion along the null geodesics followed by the photons since their emission until their detection and as a result we get closed form analytic expressions for the orbital radius of the observer in terms of the emitter radius, and the black hole parameters. In addition, we compute exact analytic expressions for the frame dragging of timelike spherical orbits in the KN(a)dS spacetime in terms of multivariable generalised hypergeometric functions of Lauricella and Appell. We apply our exact solutions of timelike non-spherical polar KN geodesics for the computation of frame-dragging, pericentre-shift, orbital period for the orbits of S2 and S14 stars within the of SgrA*. We solve the conditions for timelike spherical orbits in KN(a)dS and KN spacetimes. We present new, elegant compact forms for the parameters of these orbits. Last but not least we derive a very elegant and novel exact formula for the periapsis advance for a test particle in a non-spherical polar orbit in KNdS black hole spacetime in terms of Jacobi’s elliptic function sn and Lauricella’s hypergeometric function .
© The Author(s) 2021
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