**80**: 242

https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-020-7796-y

Regular Article - Theoretical Physics

## The perturbative approach for the weak deflection angle

Center for Astrophysics and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China

^{*} e-mail: junjijia@whu.edu.cn

Received:
13
January
2020

Accepted:
29
February
2020

Published online:
16
March
2020

Both null and timelike rays experience trajectory bending in a gravitational field. In this work, we systematically develop a perturbative method to compute the deflection angle of rays with general velocity *v* in arbitrary static and spherically symmetric spacetimes and in equatorial plane of arbitrary static and axisymmetric spacetimes. We show that the expansion in the large closest approach limit depends on the asymptotic behavior of the metric functions only, and the generated integrand is always integrable, resulting in a deflection angle in a series form of either or *b*, the impact parameter. Using this method, the deflection angles as series of both and *b* are found in Schwarzschild, Reissner–Nordström and Kerr–Newman spacetimes to 17-th, 15-th and 6-th orders respectively, for both lightrays and particles with general velocity. The effects of the impact parameter, velocity and other parameters of the spacatimes are briefly analyzed. Moreover, we show that for spacetimes whose metric functions are only asymptotically known, the deflection angle in the weak field limit can also be calculated. Furthermore, it is shown that the deflection angle in general static and spherically symmetric spacetime and equatorial plane of static and axisymmetric spacetime to the lowest non-trivial order, depends only on the impact parameter, velocity of the particle, and the effective ADM mass of the spacetime but not on other parameters such as charge or angular momentum. These deflection angles are used in an exact gravitational lensing equation and the corresponding apparent angles of the images of the source are also solved perturbatively.

*© The Author(s), 2020*