Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
Commutative deformations of general relativity: nonlocality, causality, and dark matter
SWK Research, 1438 Chuckanut Crest Dr., Bellingham, WA, 98229, USA
* e-mail: Paul.deVegvar@post.harvard.edu
Accepted: 4 January 2017
Published online: 25 January 2017
Hopf algebra methods are applied to study Drinfeld twists of -diffeomorphisms and deformed general relativity on commutative manifolds. A classical nonlocality length scale is produced above which microcausality emerges. Matter fields are utilized to generate self-consistent Abelian Drinfeld twists in a background independent manner and their continuous and discrete symmetries are examined. There is negligible experimental effect on the standard model of particles. While baryonic twist producing matter would begin to behave acausally for rest masses above –10 TeV, other possibilities are viable dark matter candidates or a right-handed neutrino. First order deformed Maxwell equations are derived and yield immeasurably small cosmological dispersion and produce a propagation horizon only for photons at or above Planck energies. This model incorporates dark matter without any appeal to extra dimensions, supersymmetry, strings, grand unified theories, mirror worlds, or modifications of Newtonian dynamics.
© The Author(s), 2017