X - LHC Accelerators and Detectors- R and D and Upgrades
LHC accelerator R&D and upgrade scenarios
CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
Accepted: 17 November 2003
Published online: 13 July 2004
I report the results of a CERN task force set up to investigate a possible staged upgrade of the LHC and of its injectors, with a view to increasing the machine luminosity by an order of magnitude from the nominal 1034 cm–2 s–1 to 1035 cm–2 s–1. Scenarios for an LHC energy upgrade by nearly a factor two have also been considered. An interesting outcome of these discussions has been a novel approach to the optimization of the collider performance, compatible with the beam-beam limit for high intensity proton bunches or long ‘super-bunches’. I also sketch a new design of the interaction regions, including an alternative beam crossing scheme. To put things in perspective, I first address LHC commissioning scenarios and challenges associated with machine protection and electron cloud effects. Finally I discuss further studies required for an LHC performance upgrade and outline an R&D programme.
© Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag, 2004