2021 Impact factor 4.991
Particles and Fields

Eur. Phys. J. C 21, 473-488 (2001)
DOI: 10.1007/s100520100754

The pion-nucleon scattering lengths from pionic hydrogen and deuterium

H.-Ch. Schröder1, A. Badertscher1, P.F.A. Goudsmit1, M. Janousch1, H.J. Leisi1, E. Matsinos1, D. Sigg1, Z.G. Zhao1, D. Chatellard2, J.-P. Egger2, K. Gabathuler3, P. Hauser3, L.M. Simons3 and A.J. Rusi El Hassani4

1  ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
2  Institut de Physique de l'Université de Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
3  Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
4  Department de Physique, Faculté des Sciences et Téchnique, Tanger, Morocco

(Received: 20 April 2001 / Revised version: 6 July 2001 / Published online: 24 August 2001 -© Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica 2001 )

This is the final publication of the ETH Zurich-Neuchâtel-PSI collaboration on the pionic hydrogen and deuterium precision X-ray experiments. We describe the recent hydrogen 3p-1s measurement, report on the determination of the Doppler effect correction to the transition line width, analyze the deuterium shift measurement and discuss implications of the combined hydrogen and deuterium results. From the pionic hydrogen 3p-1s transition experiments we obtain the strong-interaction energy level shift $\varepsilon_{1s} =
-7.108\pm0.013 (\mathrm{stat.})\pm0.034 (\mathrm{syst.})$ eV and the total decay width $\Gamma_{1s} =
0.868\pm0.040 (\mathrm{stat.})\pm0.038 (\mathrm{syst.})$ eV of the 1s state. Taking into account the electromagnetic corrections we find the hadronic $\pi N$ s-wave scattering amplitude $a_{\pi^{-}p
= 0.0883\pm0.0008 m_{\pi}^{-1}$ for elastic scattering and $a_{\pi^{-}p\rightarrow\pi^{0}n} = -0.128\pm0.006 m_{\pi} ^{-1}$ for single charge exchange, respectively. We then combine the pionic hydrogen results with the 1s level shift measurement on pionic deuterium and test isospin symmetry of the strong interaction: our data are still compatible with isospin symmetry. The isoscalar and isovector $\pi N$ scattering lengths (within the framework of isospin symmetry) are found to be $b_0 = -0.0001^{+0.0009}_{-0.0021} m_{\pi}^{-1}$ and $b_{1} = -0.0885^{+0.0010}_{-0.0021} m_{\pi} ^{-1}$, respectively. Using the GMO sum rule, we obtain from b1 a new value of the $\pi N$ coupling constant ( $g_{\pi N} = 13.21_{-0.05}^{+0.11}$) from which follows the Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy $\Delta_{\mathrm {{GT}}} = 0.027_{-0.008}^{+0.012}$. The new values of b0 and $g_{\pi N}$ imply an increase of the nucleon sigma term by at least 9 MeV.

© Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2001